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Plant Conveyor and Systems

Jul 27

What is a Plant Transporter?

In-plant conveyor systems find use in many industries and environments where it is necessary to move materials efficiently from one point to another.

In many modern industrial settings, plant conveyor systems are essential to the quick and efficient transport of bulk materials - allowing plants to be productive and profitable.

Conveyor systems are capable of handling many materials and can travel flat distances. These systems can also be integrated with other applications such as feeders and silos, bins and hoppers.

Each conveyor system will have different requirements. There are many conveyors to fit your needs. These include chain conveyors (roller conveyors), pneumatic conveyors (pneumatic conveyors), and belt conveyors.

Although each belt has its place, Carmaky Engineering specializes in belt conveyors best suited for the mining and minerals processing industry, power stations, bulk handling terminals and power stations.

In these environments, the conveyor system is critical to the functioning of the plant, so ensuring the conveyor system is optimized is essential.

Belt Conveyor Systems

Belt conveyors take different forms and may function differently, but generally this class of conveyor is made up of pulley driven belts (or conveyor belts) which use friction to transport materials in a continuous motion.

When used to move bulk materials, belt conveyors offer many advantages over other conveying systems. These are some of the benefits:

  • It's a cost-efficient method to transport bulk materials long distances.
  • Material is transported with very little degradation
  • The conveyor can transport materials up and down, in a curve or around an arc.
  • Any point along the conveyor's travel path, materials can be loaded onto it

These advantages are not the only ones. Belt conveyors can also include integrated systems that can handle different conditions or materials. These systems include:

  • The moving surface can be open and visible or enclosed
  • You can add unloading tipsters to allow for loading at multiple points along its travel path
  • Separators may be integrated to perform sorting operations
  • It is possible to integrate weigh belt sections into weighing
  • Cleats can be added to the belt for additional support when moving over an incline

Given the variety of options available, there are important considerations to make when designing and selecting a belt conveyor.

Important Considerations

The primary considerations for any effective conveyor system design will be the material to be transported, the transport route, and any space or route constraints which may exist. These considerations will inform the design of the system, and one will immediately see whether the design will be complex or not.


The physical properties of the material and the requirements for handling are key factors. Consider the following properties:

  • What form does the material take (Hard / soft / discreet units or continuous 'flow'(sand etc)
  • How big and heavy are the individual units? Is that consistent?
  • How abrasive are the materials?
  • Preservation requirements ie. Protection from breaking / decomposing
  • Requirements for coverage

Transportation Route

Consider these factors when deciding how the material should be moved:

  • Travel time
  • Changes in elevation or curves
  • Points for loading and unloading
  • Integrated systems (weight measurement or sorting)


Most conveyor systems will have some limitations due to pre-existing infrastructure. Consider these factors:

  • There are limitations on space. Are there space constraints?
  • Pre-existing operations. Does the conveyor route have to be able to travel around other infrastructure? Or must it be integrated with existing operations?


Additional considerations

These primary considerations will determine the basic form of the conveyor system. The system must meet certain criteria to be functional.

  • Safety. Safety must be considered in the construction and operation of any system.
  • Cost effective to build
  • Energy efficiency and power consumption.
  • Robustness is a key feature of good design. Materials handling is abrasive, and equipment must be designed accordingly.
  • Reliability. The system must be reliable to realize the benefit. This includes integration and careful design of transfer chutes, overall system control design, and PLC programming.
  • Maintenance. Maintenance is necessary for all systems, even the most reliable. It is therefore important to make sure that maintenance is easy.
  • Brownfield projects require tie-in and shutdown planning. It is important to plan this in the design phase so that there are no disruptions to other operations during construction.
  • Standardised components are used.

Conveyor Design

When designing a conveyor system, efficiency and cost effectiveness should be the top priorities. While these are all important, they become more important as the system is developed.

These interrelated factors have a direct impact on cost effectiveness and efficiency of conveyors or systems based upon current knowledge.

  • Power demand
  • Idler spacing
  • Belt velocity
  • Belt width, type and class
  • Conveyors with dynamic performance

The ratio of influence of each of these factors on the desired outcomes is not straight forward as it depends on conveyor parameters such as: horizontal length, vertical profile, capacity, and material conveyed. Although the process is uniform, the tools used in design and optimization can differ.


What We Offer

We design and supply plant conveyors systems and systems that are efficient in capital, fit for purpose, and reliable.

The Carmaky team works closely alongside clients to understand system requirements. Our team includes constructability experts, and we work closely with client operations and construction teams to plan critical tie-ins and commissioning activities to ensure minimal disruption to operations. We are also able to provide outstanding leadership in HAZOP and risk management.

Our team can provide complete solutions and peace-of-mind to our clients on every aspect of plant conveyor design and implementation.

Our plant system expertise includes:

  • Belt conveyors - elevated, enclosed, curved
  • Transfer chutes & structures
  • Bins, hoppers, silos, bunkers
  • Feeders
  • Dust control
  • Modular electrical rooms
  • Systems and equipment that are ancillary

Plant Conveyor and Systems

Carmaky Services